How It Works: Single Electron Transport Pumping

<div>This animation demonstrates how a single electron transport (SET) device works. Electrons flow across the device from the "source" to the "drain." A region of silicon between the gates -- called an "island" -- is used to briefly store single electrons.<br><br>By controlling the voltages of two gates, researchers can influence the electrons' movement, so that a single electron remains in the island before tunneling into the drain. By repeating this process at a high rate, many electrons flow one at a time across the device, providing a source of current.&nbsp;Animation: Sean Kelley/NIST<br></div>